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    Monday, December 09, 2019

    What is civil engineering |what is civil engineering and it breaches| Scope of Civil Engineering

      Overview

    what is civil engineering?
    scope of civil engineering?
    scope of civil engineering


      Civil engineering is a collective term for the science and technology used to construct various types of engineering facilities. It refers to the object of engineering construction, that is, various types of engineering facilities built in the ground, above ground, and water, etc., as well as the materials, equipment, and surveying, design, construction, management, monitoring, and maintenance technologies used.

    Subject Connotation

      Civil engineering is one of the earliest established engineering disciplines, and its disciplines are rich in content, including basic disciplines and theories, engineering materials, engineering analysis, and design, engineering construction, engineering economics and management, and information technology applications. For the safety and application of various structures in infrastructure construction, such as housing construction, bridges, tunnels, and underground engineering, roads, railways, ports, municipal and special engineering, heating, ventilation, air conditioning systems, etc.
      The theoretical system of the civil engineering discipline mainly includes civil engineering materials science, geotechnical engineering, principles, and design of engineering structures (structural engineering, bridge, and tunnel engineering), disaster prevention and mitigation and protection of engineering structures, water supply, and drainage and waste treatment, Artificial environment, and energy engineering, civil engineering construction and management, etc. The knowledge base supporting the subject of civil engineering and its theory mainly includes the following contents, which are focused on different research subjects: modern mathematics (advanced mathematics, numerical analysis, probability theory, mathematical statistics, mathematical equations, optimization theory, etc.) ), Physics, chemistry (hydrochemistry, chemistry and reaction kinetics, etc.), biology, engineering materials science, mechanics (theoretical mechanics, material mechanics, structural mechanics, elastoplastic mechanics, structural dynamics, fluid mechanics, fracture mechanics, etc.) ), Computational mechanics, soil mechanics, and rock mechanics, advanced heat transfer, advanced thermodynamics, engineering geology, environmental geology, basic engineering, seismic engineering, protective engineering, structural reliability theory, structural design principles and methods, Civil engineering test and inspection technology, civil engineering construction, economics, management, etc.
      Civil engineering disciplines generally adopt statistical induction and integrated research methods based on theoretical analysis, experimental research (model tests, field surveys, and field measurements) and numerical calculations.

    Scope of discipline

     1. Geotechnical engineering 
    is to study the characteristics of rock and soil engineering, evaluate the possibility of natural disasters on the site, design, construction, and monitoring and construction) building foundations, slopes, retaining structures, dams, tunnels, docks, landfills and other geotechnical works The discipline of structures. The scope of geotechnical engineering research includes theoretical and numerical simulations, geotechnical constitutive relationships, laboratory tests, field monitoring, and design and construction of geotechnical structures. Almost all civil engineering structures are built on or in geotechnical or geotechnical bodies. Geotechnical engineering disciplines play an important role in civil engineering construction.

      2. Structural engineering 

    Civil engineering structure refers to a load-bearing system composed of various components made of building materials in buildings, structures, and facilities of houses, bridges, roads and other works; the structural system should be safe, applicable and economical, durable. The discipline of structural engineering studies the selection of structural systems, mechanical analysis, design theory, and construction technology. Through the use of basic mathematical mechanics knowledge and modern science and technology, the creative use of building materials and structural forms makes engineering structures safe, reliable, and economically reasonable. Various functional requirements.

      3. Municipal engineering /Town planning 

    studies the planning, design, construction, management, and system operation of urban and industrial water supply projects, drainage projects, and urban waste treatment and disposal projects. The research objects are water quality scientific issues and safeguard technologies in the process of water society cycle, including urban water engineering theory and technology, water quality engineering science and technology, urban pipeline engineering science and technology, building water supply and drainage theory and technology, water quality chemistry and biology, Water functional materials, scientific theory, and technical issues in urban flood control and rainwater utilization engineering, water engineering instruments, meters, materials and equipment, water quality monitoring methods, etc. The purpose is to solve the problems of water shortage, water pollution prevention, water quality safety guarantee, optimization, and energy conservation of water distribution and distribution network systems, and sewage sludge and solid waste disposal and utilization, and to provide theoretical and technical support for a virtuous cycle of water.

      4. Heating, gas, ventilation and air-conditioning projects

     are based on minimizing the consumption of conventional energy and reducing environmental pollution, and providing various suitable artificial environments for human production and living requirements, and improving life. The discipline of theory, method, and technology related to quality design, construction, and equipment development. Its content includes the control of the hot and humid environment, cleanliness and air quality in civil and industrial buildings, vehicles and artificial climate chambers, heating and ventilation and air conditioning equipment systems to achieve this environmental control, and corresponding cold and heat sources and energy sources. Conversion equipment systems, as well as gas, steam and hot and cold water delivery systems.
      5. Disaster Prevention and Mitigation and Protection Engineering  through the comprehensive application of civil engineering and other disciplines theory and technology, establish and improve the development of civil engineering structures and engineering systems to withstand scientific theory of man-made and natural disasters, engineering design methods and techniques Subject. The core content of the subject is earthquake engineering, wind-resistant engineering, fire-resistant engineering, anti-explosive engineering, and protective engineering. The purpose is to minimize the damage caused by disasters through engineering measures, ensure the safety of people's lives and property, and protect the economy after the disaster's Capacity for recovery and development, and to meet the needs of national security protection.

      6. Bridge and Transportation, and tunnel project 

     is to span rivers, valleys, Straits, the mountains or across the bottom and solve urban traffic needs, various types of engineering structures such as bridges and tunnels as the main research object. In addition to crossing obstacles such as rivers, valleys, and straits, bridges can also replace roadbeds over long distances to meet stringent requirements for ride stability, such as bridge structures in most high-speed railways and maglev lines. The research content includes theories, methods, technologies, and techniques of planning, exploration, design, construction, manufacturing, and management of bridges, culverts, and tunnels and other structures, including roads, railways, urban roads, subways, and light rail.
      7. Civil engineering construction and management is a discipline that studies how to efficiently, safely and sustainably carry out the construction and management of civil engineering throughout its life cycle to improve the quality of urbanization and urban-rural development in China; it is also a comprehensive application of civil engineering and management science, Science, social science, information science, and other subject knowledge, theories and methods, from the feasibility study, development planning, planning and design, construction to the completion of all types of civil engineering, such as urban infrastructure, industrial civil construction, and real estate development. Economic analysis, decision-making planning, supervision and control, organization and coordination are the subjects of study.

      8. Civil Engineering Materials 

     is a materials science and civil engineering cutting-edge field of two-way crossover study of a new form of applied basic research and applied research disciplines, basic research dedicated to materials science, mechanics, chemistry, physics, ecology and so on Fields and civil engineering, water conservancy and hydropower engineering, transportation engineering, and other application areas, set up mutually promoting development, application-oriented interdisciplinary research. It mainly includes the relationship between the composition, structure, and performance of inorganic materials, polymer materials and Xiahe materials in civil engineering; the design, production and application methods of civil engineering materials, their impact on the ecological environment and countermeasures; the properties of materials in engineering structures Deterioration law, mechanism and its influence on the performance of components and structures.
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