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    Friday, December 13, 2019

    Building Construction steps in civil engineering - Building construction




    Architectural construction refers to the production activities during the construction phase of the project. It is the construction process of various types of buildings. It can also be said that the various lines on the design drawings are turned into physical objects at designated locations. It includes foundation engineering construction, main structure construction, roofing engineering construction, decoration engineering construction, etc. The construction site is called "building construction site" or "construction site", also called construction site.



    Basic Information 


    Building construction is a production activity for people to build a variety of building products using various building materials, machinery, and equipment in a certain space and time according to a specific design blueprint. It includes the entire production process from construction preparation, groundbreaking to project completion acceptance. In this process, construction preparation, construction organization design, and management, earthmoving engineering, blasting engineering, foundation engineering, reinforcement engineering, formwork engineering, scaffolding engineering, concrete engineering, prestressed concrete engineering, masonry engineering, steel structure engineering and wooden structures will be carried out. Engineering, structural installation engineering, etc.
    Building construction is a technically complex production process. Building workers need to show their ingenuity and creatively apply theories of materials, mechanics, structure, and technology to solve the technical problems that constantly arise in construction, and ensure the quality and safety of construction. This construction process is carried out by a variety of workers in a limited amount of time and space. The supply of hundreds of materials and the operation of various machinery and equipment requires scientific and advanced organizational management measures and the use of advanced construction techniques to successfully complete this production process. Great economic process. A large amount of human, material and financial resources will be consumed in the construction. Therefore, it is required to consider its economic benefits everywhere during construction and take measures to reduce costs. The focus of people's attention during the construction process is always the project quality, safety (including environmental protection) schedule and cost. 

    Scheme steps


    1 Construction flow and construction sequence.
    2 Division of the construction phase.
    3 Selection of construction method and construction machinery.
    4 Design for safe construction.
    5 Contents and methods of environmental protection.

    Construction deployment


    1 Project quality, schedule, cost and safety goals
    2 Maximum number and average number of proposed investors
    3 Subcontracting plan, labor use plan, material supply plan, mechanical equipment supply plan
    construction procedures
    5 overall project management arrangements

    Schedule


    1 Overall construction schedule
    2 Unit project construction schedule.

    Public information


    What are the public information on construction projects?
    Construction project information management refers to the total of a series of tasks such as the systematic collection, processing, storage, transfer, and application of various professional information by the project management department with project management as the goal and construction project information as the management object.
    In order to realize the needs of project management and improve the management level, the project manager department should establish a project information management system, optimize the information structure, and process large amounts of project construction and related information dynamically, at high speed, and with high quality. Informatization of project management provides a scientific basis for making the best decisions, achieving good economic results and predicting the future.
    In the construction project information management, the project's public information is the first. It's main content includes four aspects of information, one is policy and regulation information, the other is natural condition information, the third is market information and the fourth is other public information. Specifically, the information on policies and regulations contains policies, laws, regulations and departments, and the rules and regulations of enterprises; the natural condition information is the meteorological, geomorphological, and hydrogeological data of the project location and the third is market information and suppliers of materials and equipment. And price information, new technologies, new processes and so on.
    For the project information management system, project public information also occupies a major important position, which is also divided into public information databases or information tables, other public information documents of the project, and information tables in public information. Here are the tables of regulations and department rules. Material price list, material supplier list, machinery equipment supplier list, machinery equipment price list, new technology list, natural condition list and other forms.

    Process standard


    1. Earthwork excavation process:
    Determine the order and the slope of the excavation → Cut the contour line of the groove along the gray line → Layered excavation → Trim the groove side → Clear the bottom
    When excavating earthwork, it is necessary to prevent the adjacent buildings or structures, roads, pipelines, etc. from sinking and deforming. When necessary, consult with the design unit or construction unit, take protective measures, and observe settlement or displacement during construction.
    If cultural relics or ancient tombs are found during construction, they should be properly protected, and they should be reported to the relevant local authorities for disposal before proceeding with the construction. If permanent measuring stakes or long-term observation points set by the geological and seismic departments are found, they should be protected. When earthwork is laid on the ground or underground pipelines and cables, the written consent of the relevant The management department should be obtained in advance. Measures should be taken during construction to prevent damage to the pipeline, prevent landslides, and avoid serious accidents caused by excavation.

    Status and problems


    As residents have an urgent need to improve their living environment, the construction industry is one-sidedly pursuing scale development and neglecting safety management work, and safety accidents occur from time to time. In order to solve this problem, it is necessary to have a clear understanding of this problem. In this regard, the author analyzes the current status and problems of construction safety management in Pakistan, as follows:

    (I) Lack of awareness and emphasis on security

    In the tide of market competition, the competition in the construction industry is becoming increasingly fierce, so some companies in the bidding for construction projects will lower the offer again and again. The construction unit that won the bid at a low price can only save expenses on safety management costs, and some even ignore the investment in safety management. An effective guarantee cannot be achieved, and the ability of safety management naturally cannot meet actual needs. Therefore, more and more construction accidents will occur, and once they occur, they are serious consequences that cannot be undone.

    (2) Insufficient safety education for construction personnel


    The safety education of construction workers by construction companies only stays on traditional safety management methods. Safety issues are not deeply rooted. Construction workers have weak awareness of production safety, paralysis, and poor self-protection capabilities. The occurrence of labor discipline has increased the hidden danger of safety accidents. For example, on the morning of March 23, 2009, there were two construction sites in Gangmen Village, Sanya City, both of which are residential buildings of villagers. Workers were busy mixing cement and laying bricks without wearing hard hats, and debris was constantly falling on the scaffolding. The elevator was busy carrying materials, there were no isolation facilities nearby, and there were no warning signs. A worker without a helmet was operating, and beside him was a messy electric wire. None of the workers on the scaffolding were wearing safety belts. They have not received formal professional education and training, lack proper safety knowledge, and have a weak sense of safety. Therefore, it is easy to cause a safety accident.

    (3) Insufficient safety inspection at the construction site

    In recent years, although China's construction safety management has made significant progress, the current situation of more than 1,000 deaths and direct economic losses of more than 10 billion yuan still reminds us that the letter of work on construction safety needs further strengthening and breakthrough. Safety management personnel are not in place, security inspections are superficial, and even show on safety management, play word games, so that hidden safety hazards cannot be discovered and eliminated in a timely manner. Some supervision units have not strictly performed the duties of safety supervision in strict accordance with the "Regulations on the Safety Management of Construction Projects." They have stayed on the content and requirements of "three controls, two managements, and one coordination" in the past, focusing on quality, neglecting safety, being unfamiliar with and not mastering Laws, regulations and standards for safe production cannot be used to effectively carry out safety supervision work, and supervision duties and safety supervision are ineffective. In addition, the non-standard and non-standard construction safety data also makes the development of building construction management work face problems. Many construction organization design schemes, sub-items and safety education are not targeted, incomplete, inaccurate, or inconsistent with the actual site. In this way, the safety technology is not in place, and the construction safety activity records are not true, which brings principle errors and hidden dangers to the construction site safety management.

    Safety common sense

    Asphalt common sense

    What safety inspections should be done on asphalt sprinkler operations?
    The wheels of the sprinkler should be fixed before work, check whether the high-pressure hose and the fuel injection pipe is firmly connected, whether the nozzle and the throttle are unblocked, and whether the parts are damaged. After the inspection is complete, preheat the fuel injection pipe, install the nozzle, and spray it in the fuel tank before spraying.

    What safety should be paid attention to the road when the truck is full of asphalt?

    Spreading trucks loaded with asphalt should drive at medium speed during road work. When there is a curve, you should slow down in advance to avoid emergency braking. Never use a heating system while driving.

    What safety should I pay attention to when spraying asphalt?

    When spraying asphalt, the fuel injection pipe part of the handle should be wrapped with insulation materials such as old sacks or asbestos rope. During operation, the spray head must not be upward. No one is allowed to stand near the sprinkler head, and it is not allowed to operate against the wind.

    What regulations should the asphalt paver follow?

    (1) The driver's platform and the work site should have a wide field of vision and remove all obstacles that hinder work. Unrelated personnel must not stay on the bridge while working. The driver must not leave the position without permission.
    (2) When unloading materials from the paver to the paver, they should coordinate their actions and travel synchronously to prevent collisions.
    (3) Shifting must be completely stopped when the paver is stopped. It is strictly forbidden to forcibly shift the gear and shift on the ramp or to coast in neutral.
    (4) When the ironing board is preheated, the heat should be controlled to prevent deformation due to local overheating. Special care must be taken during the healing process.
    (5) The driving force should be smooth and must not turn sharply. When cornering, the distance between the end of the ironing device and the curb must not be less than 10cm to avoid a collision.
    (6) When cleaning the paver with diesel, do not approach the open flame
    Lifting safety
    What are the safety requirements for personnel when lifting a sunken pile or pile hammer?
    When lifting a sunken pile or pile hammer, it is strictly forbidden for the operator to stop or work under the hook or at the gate of the pile frame.
    What are the safety regulations when lifting a crane to carry out a bridge?
    (1) The positioning and anchoring of the crane shall be carried out according to the design and a static load test shall be carried out.
    (2) The equipment shall be inspected and shall not be used if there are hidden dangers and non-compliance with safety regulations.
    (3) Before lifting the component, a comprehensive inspection of the component should be carried out, such as checking whether the ring part is damaged, whether there are protruding objects on the joint surface, and whether there are floating objects on the object.
    (4) The component should be lifted vertically and kept balanced and stable. Near the installation site. Do not collide with installed components and other operating facilities.
    (5) The vehicle carrying the component is withdrawn quickly after the component is lifted.
    Bridge and Culvert Safety
    What are the requirements for construction equipment before construction of bridges and culverts?
    Before construction of bridges and culverts, a comprehensive inspection of the construction site, machinery and equipment, and safety protection facilities should be conducted to confirm that they are safe before construction.
    What technical preparations should be done before bridge construction?
    For the construction of large bridges with high bridges, long spans, deep waters, and complicated structures, special investigations should be conducted on construction safety, and corresponding safety technical measures should be formulated. Before the start of a single project (including auxiliary structures, temporary projects), safety technical details shall be provided to the construction personnel in accordance with the safety operation rules formulated in these regulations.
    Manual hole digging
    Safety measures for manual digging?
    Manual hole digging, the stability of the hole wall and spreader equipment should be checked frequently. The excavation equipment at the top of the hole should be managed by a special person, and a fence above the ground should be set up; the hole should not be piled with soil slag and heavy equipment; in order to facilitate the operator's access, a standing ladder should be provided; red lights should be suspended at night; At the time, the cover should be provided with a cover and a mark.
    How to carry out safe maintenance on pile driver and lifting tools?
    Pile drivers and lifting tools should be checked and maintained frequently. When inspecting and maintaining the pile hammer, the pile hammer must be dropped on the ground or a flat surface. It is strictly forbidden to repair the pile hammer in a suspended state.

    Construction protection

    What protection measures should be taken in the construction area?
    Fences, barriers, etc. should be set up around the construction site, and signs or hanging signs should be set up. Red lights should be set up at night to prevent people from entering by mistake.
    What are the specific contents of "one pipe", "two fixes", "three checks", and "four don't let go" at the construction site?
    Once in charge, there must be a full-time safety officer to manage safety. The second is to formulate a safety production system and safety technical measures. Three inspections, that is, regularly inspecting the implementation of safety measures; inspecting illegal operations; inspecting safety production facilities during the winter and rainy seasons. Fourth, don't let go, that is, don't let go of paralysis; don't let go of accidents; don't let go of illegal operations; don't let go of security loopholes.
    What are the safety requirements for using an electric vibrator?
    (1) Operators should wear safety protective equipment. The ground wire of the switchboard (box) should be a cable.
    (2) When working in a large volume of concrete, the main power switch should be placed in a dry place; multiple vibrators should be operated at the same time, a centralized switch box should be set up, and a special person will take care of it.
    (3) The connecting hose of the wind-powered vibrator must not be damaged or leak air, and the ventilation valve should be gradually opened during use.
    What safety should be paid attention to when bulldozers go up and down?
    When going uphill or downhill, its slope should not be greater than 30 degrees; when working on a slope, its slope should not be greater than 0 degrees from work; when going downhill, it should be used to go down, and it is strictly forbidden to glide in neutral. If necessary, you can lower the blade to assist braking.
    What are the safety requirements for excavators and other machinery when excavating foundations?
    During operation, the safe distance between the fuselage and the side of the pit depends on the depth, slope and soil conditions of the foundation pit. Generally, it should be no less than 1.0m. When stacking materials and equipment, it should be no less than 0.8m. In the pit, the layers should be frozen and excavated layer by layer according to the geological, hydrological, and temperature conditions.
    What safety should I pay attention to when the roller is working near the edge of the embankment?
    Roller near the embankment when the edge of the work should be based on the embankment height to leave the necessary safety distance. When rolling a mountain road, it must be rolled from the inside to the outside. When going uphill, the speed change should be performed after braking.
    What safety should the roller pay attention to when rolling?
    The eye-catching kanbans of the front and rear wheels of the roller should be kept smooth and well. The person who brushes or sprinkles the water with the roller should cooperate with the company. They must be behind the roller to walk. Pay attention to the steering of the roller.
    What are the installation requirements for prefabricated components (beams, panels)?
    For the installation of prefabricated components (beams, plates), an installation plan shall be formulated and a unified command system shall be established. Training should be organized for construction projects that are difficult and dangerous.
    What are the specific requirements when lifting bridges and culverts under severe conditions?
    When working in the open air at high altitudes, cable hoisting and large component lifting hoisting, a wind standard suitable for the construction should be formulated according to the operating height and the wind force on the site and the degree of influence on the operation. In case of strong winds of level 6 or above, the above construction shall be stopped.
    What labor protection measures does the operator take during insulation work?
    Wear sleeves, trousers, and a neckline, and wear a mask, dust cap, and protective glasses.
    What requirements should be met when building a flammable warehouse at the construction site?
    The minimum distance from other flammable temporary facilities is not less than 20m; the distance from non-flammable temporary facilities is not less than 15m, and the distance from boiler rooms, kitchens and production sources is not less than 30m.
    What requirements should be met when constructing employee dormitories at the construction site?
    It should be 20m away from the construction site and not allowed under the high voltage line. The horizontal distance from the high-voltage line is not less than 6m, and the equal distance from the substation and the kitchen is not less than 15m.
    What are the safe electricity regulations for the use of electric machinery at the construction site?
    (1) Establish and implement a special person-in-charge system, and conduct regular inspections and maintenance.
    (2) Exposed conductive parts that are not charged shall be protected and connected to zero.
    (3) Install a leakage protector at the same time.
    (4) Maintenance is performed by a full-time electrician. Before maintenance, the power must be cut off, and a warning sign prohibiting "closing" must be displayed. Do not work with power on.
    What are the requirements for cable trunking at the construction site?
    It should be laid underground or overhead, and it is strictly forbidden to be laid along the ground, and mechanical damage and medium corrosion should be avoided.
    Which areas of the construction site should have obvious warning signs to prohibit non-bench personnel from entering?
    Large lifting sites, ray work areas, electrical withstand voltage test areas, blasting operation areas, toxic device operation areas, hot fire construction operations and other warning areas.
    How to prevent objects from hitting during construction?
    (1) The tools used for aerial work must be placed in a tool bag or toolbox, and they must not be randomly placed.
    (2) Do not throw materials, tools, etc. up and down.
    (3) Avoid vertical work as much as possible. Isolation facilities should be set up for layered operations.
    (4) Safety helmets should be worn when entering the construction site.
    Safety technical requirements when pulling out piles?
    When using a herringbone mast and a hoist to lift piles, the pile pulling force should be calculated first, and then a hoist and block with appropriate power should be equipped according to the magnitude of the upper force. When pulling piles, the herringbone mast block should be as close to the center of the pile as possible. During the trial drawing, if it is found that the inner rope is overstressed or the ground anchor is loose, it should be operated after taking measures.
    What safety should the mixer pay attention to during mixing?
    During the mixing process, do not make sharp turns or turn in place. It is strictly prohibited to use the reverse gear for mixing operations. When there is an obstacle on the bottom layer, the rotor should be lifted in time for inspection.
    What safety should the mixer pay attention to during walking and operation?
    The mixer must use low speed during walking and operation and maintain uniform speed. The temperature of the hydraulic oil must not exceed the requirements.
    What conditions should the participating construction personnel have to work?
    Must receive safety technology education, be familiar with and comply with various safety technology operating procedures of this type of work, and regularly conduct safety technology assessment before qualified personnel can take up operations.
    What should be paid attention to before demolishing a building (structure)?
    The water, electric wires and gas pipelines connected to the demolition should be cut off first, and safety fences should be set up in the surrounding dangerous area. Non-workers must not enter.
    Safety technical requirements after the pile driver starts?
    After the vibratory pile driver is started, the operator should temporarily leave the foundation pile. If it is found that the pile rebounds during the shock, the pile driver has abnormal sounds and other abnormal conditions, the earthquake should be stopped immediately, and the operation should be continued after inspection and processing. All start and stop must obey orders.
    What are the safety requirements for a pile driver construction site?
    When reinforced concrete piles or prestressed concrete piles are driven by hammered or vibrated piles, the construction site shall be kept flat and clean. The moving track of the pile driver shall be laid smoothly, the gauge shall be accurate, the steel rail shall be nailed, and the end of the track shall be provided with a wheel stopper.
    What are the safety technical requirements when the pile driver moves?
    When the pile driver moves, it should be carried out under the direction of the person in charge of the construction on site. The pile frame should move smoothly, the pile hammer must be placed at the lowest position, and the counterweight iron at the rear of the diesel pile driver must be complete. When using a roller to slide the pile, the operator shall not operate in the pile driving frame.

    What are the safety requirements for excavation works?

    The structures of various cofferdams and foundation pit set up for foundation excavation must be firm and reliable. During foundation construction, excavation, lifting, pouring concrete, etc. are strictly prohibited from colliding with the support, and no heavy objects may be placed on the support. When the cofferdam is found to be loose or deformed during construction, it should be reinforced in a timely manner and it should be evacuated immediately when the safety of the operator is endangered.
    What are the safety requirements for personnel in foundation excavation operations?
    When working in the cofferdam, the operator should be evacuated immediately in case of flood or drift ice. When the foundation pit is deep, people should be hoisted up and down the escalator. Demolition of the foundation pit support should be carried out under the guidance of the person in charge of the construction. Demolition support should be coordinated with the backfill of the foundation pit. Safety measures must be taken to protect personnel when there is a danger of the wall collapse.
    What safety should be paid attention to when multiple machines work on the same working surface?
    The distance between the front and rear bulldozers should not be less than 8m, and the distance between the left and right should be greater than 1.5m. When two or more bulldozers are bulldozed side by side, the distance between the blades of the two bulldozers should be 20-30m. When bulldozing forwards, they must drive directly at the same speed; when backing up, they should be in order to prevent collisions.
    What regulations must be followed for construction on high and steep slopes?
    (1) Operators must wear safety belts
    (2) If the excavation of the slope encounters groundwater gushing, it should be drained first, and then excavated
    (3) excavation work should face each other and shipping operations staggered, non-dual job down
    (4) Warning signs should be set under the spoil and on the roads where the rolling stones are endangered. It is strictly forbidden to pass under the slope during operation.
    (5) Operators on slopes must remove loose soil and stones in a timely manner. It is strictly prohibited to work under dangerous rocks, rest and store equipment.
    How to adjust the reversing clutch, vibration clutch, and brake?
    It must be carried out after the main clutch is disengaged. It is not allowed to use the fast gear when making a sharp turn. It is strictly forbidden to adjust the vibration frequency without starting vibration.
    What are the safety requirements for pouring pier construction?
    Scaffolds and working platforms must be erected before construction, and railings must be set up outside the platforms. When the pier height is above 10m, a safety net should be added.
    What are the safety technical requirements before pouring components work?
    When reinforced concrete or prestressed concrete is cast in situ, the brain protection facilities of machinery and equipment should be inspected before the operation. Formulate safety technical measures and safety operation rules for construction processes and technically complicated projects, and make technical explanations.

    When excavating a foundation pit, what safety guarantee measures should be taken in special circumstances?


    When excavating a foundation pit, if it affects adjacent buildings (structures) or temporary facilities, safety protection measures should be taken; when excavating a foundation pit in water, safety measures such as a ladder to facilitate access to the foundation pit should be provided; during excavation When the pit along the top cracks, the wall of the pit collapses or encounters gushing water, and the gushing sand affects the stability of the foundation pit slope, it should be immediately reinforced and protected; when the foundation pit needs mechanical pumping and drainage, sufficient pumping and drainage equipment must be provided. Pumps and pipes should be installed securely.

    What are the safety technical requirements when installing members on the span pier gantry?

    When installing a member on a span pier gantry, appropriate safety measures should be taken according to the height and span of the gantry to ensure the stability of the component when it is hoisted and moved. The member is suspended to the top of the pier, and it should be slowly and smoothly dropped slowly.
    Flat trailer common sense
    Safety requirements for flatbed trailers transporting large precast components?
    The speed of transporting large prefabricated flatbed trailers should be controlled within. In the transportation of simply supported beams, in addition to the diagonal support in the horizontal direction to prevent overturning, the pallet must be provided with a turntable at the storage point.
    What safety should the grader pay attention to during operation?
    The rotation of the scraper, the adjustment of the shovel angle, and the outward tilt must be performed when the machine is stopped, and the difference between the lifting and lowering of the scraper during operation must not be too large.
    Security check
    edit
    (I) Purpose of Security Inspection
    The purpose is to find hidden dangers so that effective measures can be taken in advance to eliminate hidden dangers.
    1. Through inspection, unsafe behaviors of people, unsafe conditions of objects, and unsanitary problems are found, and countermeasures are taken to eliminate unsafe factors and ensure production safety.
    2. Through inspection, predict the danger, clear the danger, and reduce the frequency of casualties and economic losses to the socially acceptable range.
    3. Prevent unsafe factors in production through a safety inspection.
    4. Take measures to eliminate unsafe and unsanitary problems in time.
    5. Use inspections to further, publicize, implement, and implement work safety guidelines, policies, and various work safety rules and regulations.
    6. Strengthen the safety awareness of leaders and the masses, correct violations of command and operations, and increase the awareness of safety in production.
    7. Learning from each other, summing up experience, learning from lessons, and drawing on each other's strengths and weaknesses, promote the further improvement of work safety.
    8. Grasp the safety production trends, analyze the situation of safety products and provide information basis for research and strengthening safety management.

    (2) Contents of security inspection

    The contents of safety inspection are mainly investigation of ideas, investigation of systems, investigation of hidden dangers, investigation of measures, an inspection of machinery and equipment, an inspection of safety facilities, an inspection of safety education and training, an inspection of operation behavior, an inspection of the use of labor protection supplies, an inspection of casualties, etc.
    (3) Main forms of security inspection
    There are many forms of inspections of production safety. There are regular inspections, professional inspections, compliance inspections, seasonal inspections, regular inspections, and acceptance inspections in terms of specific methods.
    (4) Requirements for security inspection
    In construction production, in order to find hidden dangers of safety accidents in time, eliminate unsafely factors during construction, correct illegal operations, supervise the implementation of safety technical measures, plug loopholes and prevent problems before they occur, the main links that are prone to accidents in safety production must be And parts, the entire process of dynamic supervision and inspection by professional safety production management institutions, and constantly improve working conditions to prevent accidents at work.
    1. Before carrying out each type of safety inspection, there should be a clear inspection item and inspection purpose, content and inspection standards, points and key parts.
    2. Find the problem in time, solve the problem and deal with the hidden safety hazards detected in time.
    3. The hidden safety hazards discovered during the safety inspection must be registered as a reference for rectification, provide dynamic safety analysis and guide safety management decisions based on hidden trouble records and safety dynamic analysis.
    4. Conduct systematic, qualitative and quantitative analysis carefully and comprehensively, and carry out detailed safety evaluation.
    5. For a large-scale and comprehensive safety inspection, the inspection content, inspection standards and inspection requirements should be clearly defined. In addition, according to the inspection requirements, it is equipped with power. It is necessary to clearly identify the person in charge of the inspection, draw professionals to participate in the inspection, and make a clear division of labor.
    6. After the rectification is completed, the relevant departments shall be notified in a timely manner, and a staff member shall be sent for a re-examination. After the re-examination and rectification is qualified, the case may be canceled.
    7. It is necessary to fill in the inspection records carefully and in detail, and in particular to specifically, record the location of the hidden dangers and the degree of danger.
    Safety production is a systematic and complex management task, which involves all aspects of the construction industry. We have tightened this string at any time, eliminating all kinds of hidden dangers, and eliminated all kinds of accidents.
    Safety management
    edit
    "The Ten Commandments"
    Looking at the root cause of safety accidents at the construction site, one of the main factors is the low quality of human safety and human unsafe behavior is essentially a major hidden danger to safety. With this, the "ten precepts" for the site The safety management of construction projects is summarized.
    One fortunate. Some construction projects paid insufficient attention to the person in charge of ideology, that it is important, but doing it a secondary, from the busy forget, tend to leave things to chance, and just always thought that "a curse not escape," everything " extremely suspicious " no need. Don't you know that you are not afraid of 10,000, but you will regret it if you accidentally cause an accident due to paralysis. Tighten the safety string at all times, with a mentality such as sitting on a needle felt, staying calm, and you must not relax your vigilance.
    Two short-term behavior. Reluctant to spend money to buy safety and invest in permanent security settings and construction in accordance with the norms. In order to "economically benefit", it can save provinces and short-sighted, always thinking that a project will be completed within a few months or years. If it is not safe enough, it can be dragged away. As everyone knows, small money does not cost big money. Cases of small mistakes abound, "one footstep hate forever." A major accident is enough to destroy a person's future or even a business. It is best to take precautions first and to be prepared.
    Three-ring tiger head and tail. Security awareness should keep pace with the times. During the construction of the foundation of the project, safety is tightly grasped, after all, it is a high-incidence period. After entering the main construction, the "three treasures, four mouths" and various safety protection work have to be done. However, the decoration finishing stage is about to be completed. Safety is left behind. As the installation requires various protective equipment to be gradually removed, hidden safety hazards There is no increase, especially for safe use of electricity, and on-site protection needs more attention. "It is possible to have right and wrong without incident." Remember, to do safe work, you must start and end with perseverance and perseverance.
    The four precepts are sufficient. Safety protection products, quality first is the key. Some are greedy for cheap, or in order to get "rebates", buy inferior quality "safety nets" that fail to meet safety standards, substandard charge, or buy fake and inferior products as labor insurance supplies, etc., all are buried in safety production "Bane." May I ask, what is the conscience for personal small profits at the expense of the lives and health of others? How for bearable? It is wise to persuade the monarch to follow the rules and act according to law.
    The five precepts were not trained. "The soldiers and horses haven't moved yet, the grain and grass come first." To ensure safety, training must come first. Many accidents are man-made, and poor self-protection is indeed the root cause. We must adhere to the principle of "training before taking up positions, and not taking up positions without passing the examination". In particular, migrant workers must take the lesson on safety. It is the key to properly train and improve your own safety and security skills. Do n’t use the project urgently to hire people, and let the “farm-seeking” migrant workers urge them to take up their posts. This will easily cause a calamity, and in the end, they will pay more than they pay.
    Six precepts for illegal operations. Safety regulations and operating procedures are the health line and life-saving line for everyone. Some of them are rushing for construction periods, drawing benefits, forcing workers to take risky operations and illegal construction, which is a trick to human life. Please think twice, human life is off, is it important? There are benefits only when there is security. "There is no rule and no roundabout." Only by strictly observing the operating procedures and handling matters according to chapters and meticulousness, can we always ensure safety at all times and everywhere.
    The Seven Commandments falsified. Security management must not be false. Needless to say, false aspects of safety management occurs at many construction sites. For example, the safety education system is not implemented, and the facts are fabricated; in order to cope with the inspection, the security industry conducts "memoirs", some falsify, refuse to rectify or fail to correct the hidden safety hazards, and want to confuse the pass; What's more, safety supervisor Not in place, sing " empty city plan ". There are many such things. "A bank of a thousand miles lies in an ant's nest." This kind of self-deception and deceiving oneself is not desirable.
    The Eight Commandments are escrowed. At present, it is necessary to strengthen safety supervision, implement economic penalties for violations of laws and disciplines, and severely punish those who cause accidents. However, some people think that punishment is the answer to the problem and that the use of punishment as a proxy is contrary to the original intention of strengthening safety management. Some issue a ticket at every turn, regardless of the fine or not. As everyone knows, some people "paid the bills" with public funds and did not reach individuals at all. The potential safety hazards at the construction site are still “the sound of the waves”. Buy an “old boat ticket” and you will be able to spend a quarter. "I do my own thing, I can do nothing," there are still many people.
    Nine jealous horses look at flowers. Security inspections are expensive to implement and focus on rectification. Don't take a rash look at it. Swallowing jujubes is superficial, perfunctory, and ultimately wrong. During the inspection, we must "see the truth in the slightest place", and not let go of every "clue" that may lead to an accident, and do not let go of any details that do not meet safety standards.
    The Ten Commandments are concealed. In the event of a security accident, whether it is a "natural disaster" or a "human disaster", it is necessary to report it truthfully and in a timely manner. This rule is understood by everyone, but some people cannot do it. I always want to make things small and things small. Always believe that "reporting troubles, it is better to be private." Some are afraid of concealing the reputation of the company without concealing it, some do not perform work injury appraisal, and take a sum of money to send away. Some do not provide the necessary treatment and economic compensation as required. Lead to labor disputes and petitions. It is advisable to advise these people that it is better not to go beyond the "police line" of security.
    Due to the large movement of people during construction and a large number of operations in the open and high places, manual operations such as plasterers, bricklayers, concrete workers and scaffolding are still mainly manual operations, heavy labor, high physical exertion, coupled with light, rain, snow, The severe operating an environment such as wind and frost, lightning, etc., lead to the operator's inattention or irritable and illegal operation is very common. The unsafe factors change with the progress of the image. It changes every month, every day, even every hour. Brings many difficulties to security protection. In order to avoid the five major injuries of building construction, construction personnel should start from the overall situation of an economy, technology, quality, and safety, and compile construction safety technical measures under the guidance of national and industry laws, regulations and standards. Potential accident hazards and safety issues that may occur in the process are predicted, so that technical and management measures are taken to eliminate or control unsafe factors during construction and prevent accidents.
    Construction safety technical measures are an important part of the design of the construction organization. It is the safety management and technical documents that specifically arrange and guide the safe construction of the project. It is a directive document for safe production during the construction of the project. It has safety products in the management of the construction site. The role of regulations.
    The construction site is a a place where products are produced by the construction industry. In order to ensure the safety and health of construction workers during construction, attention should be paid to the establishment of safety regulations, safety operation knowledge, and safety measures.
    Construction Site

    1.1 Hanging signs and safety signs

    "One picture and five cards" should be set at the entrance of the construction site, that is, the general plan of the project and the project overview card, the management personnel and supervision telephone card, the safety production regulation card, the fire protection card, and the civilized construction management system card to accept Mass supervision. Safety signs should be hung on dangerous parts such as fall, electric shock, and object strike in the field.
    1.2 The surrounding area of ​​the construction site is enclosed by hard materials.
    In the urban area, its height must not be lower than 1.8m, the floor in the field should be hardened, and the road should be solid and clear. The drainage system at the construction site shall be kept clear and shall not be discharged at will. The storage of various facilities and materials shall meet the requirements of safety regulations and the general plan of construction.
    1.3 The holes, holes, openings, trenches, bridges, walls, and buildings on the construction site should be provided with fences, covers and warning signs, and warning lights should be provided at night.
    Various types of scaffolding (including operating platforms and formwork support) at the construction site shall be designed in accordance with the standards, adopting tools and appliances that comply with the regulations, erected in accordance with the special safety construction organization design, and closed with a green dense mesh safety net.
    The installation and use of power lines and facilities at the construction site shall comply with the temporary power code and safety operation regulations, and be erected in accordance with the design of the construction organization. It is strictly prohibited to arbitrarily pull wires to connect electricity.
    The construction unit shall take measures to control pollution and do a good job of environmental protection at the construction site.
    Necessary living facilities shall be set up at the construction site and shall meet the requirements of relevant national health regulations. Separation of living areas from construction areas and processing areas should be achieved.
    When entering the construction site, you must wear a safety helmet, and attach a safety belt for climbing and independent suspension operations.
    construction process
    There are two types of personnel in the construction team at the construction site. One is the management personnel, including project managers, constructorstechniciansquality inspectors, and security personnel. The other is the operating personnel, including bricklayers, carpenters, and rebar workers. And so on. Under no circumstances should management personnel, in order to rush progress, ignore safety regulations, and direct workers to take risks. Operators should master the knowledge and skills to protect their own lives and health through tertiary education, safety technical knowledge, and daily pre-class activities, prevent risky brutality and do not harm themselves, others or others. In addition to non-compliance with commands and operations, various personnel should also be familiar with the following characteristics of building safety.
    2.1 Safety protection measures and facilities must be continuously supplemented and improved
    with the construction of the building from the foundation to the main structure, unsafe factors, and hidden dangers that are constantly changing and increasing. This requires timely measures to protect against changing conditions and emerging hidden dangers to ensure safety. produce.
    2.2 There are many risk factors for cross-operation in limited space
    A large amount of machinery, facilities, materials, and people are concentrated in the limited space of the construction site. As the progress of the image of the project under construction continues to change, the cross-operation between machinery and people, and between people will become more and more frequent. Therefore, there are many opportunities for injury. This requires construction workers to strengthen their safety awareness and master Knowledge of laws, regulations, standards, and standards in production safety to prevent illegal construction and risky operations.
    Strengthen management

    3.1 Security Objective Management

    3.1.1 Control indicators of casualties.

    3.1.2 The construction site meets the safety standards and meets the qualification requirements of the Building Construction Safety Inspection Standard during the construction period.
    3.1.3 Civilized construction, formulate overall and staged goals for the entire construction period of the construction site, and implement the decomposition of responsibilities to the people, formulate evaluation methods and reward good and bad.

    3.2 Civilized construction

    During project construction, civilized construction standards such as floor hardening, site greening, five small facilities ( offices, dormitories, canteens, toilets, bathrooms) and standardization of material stacking can be achieved at the construction site.

    3.3 Security Technology

    Prior to the construction of any sub-item, engineering and technical personnel shall compile targeted safety and technical solutions according to the requirements of the design of the construction organization and the constructors shall deliver the details to the team workers. After accepting the information, the workers should sign the statement.

    3.4 Safety signs

    A dangerous place, such as a crane mechanical, electrical facilities temporary scaffolding, of the access port, stairs, elevators wellhead borehole, port bridge, tunnel, pit edge, blasting was hazardous and harmful gases and liquids and the like depository, All must hang prominent safety signs in accordance with regulations.

    3.5 Seasonal construction

    Building construction is an open-air operation and is greatly affected by weather changes. Therefore, during construction, it is necessary to formulate corresponding construction measures based on seasonal changes, mainly including rainy season construction and winter construction. High-temperature weather should take measures to prevent heatstroke and cooling.

    3.6 Dust poison control

    The hazards of toxic gases such as cement dust, welded manganese dust and paints and coatings are mainly used in the construction of buildings. With the reform of the process, some of the dust hazards have been eliminated. Such as the implementation of concrete, cement pollution is being eliminated. Other dust and poisons shall be treated by measures. The construction unit shall provide the workers with safety protective equipment and safety protective clothing, and shall inform the operation regulations of dangerous positions and the hazards of illegal operations in writing. Operators shall abide by the mandatory standards, rules and regulations and operating procedures for safe construction.
    In addition to the above-mentioned safety regulations for entering the site, the construction safety technical measures also include protection for ground and deep pit operations; protection for high-altitude and three-dimensional cross-working operations; construction electricity safety; safe use of machinery and equipment; use of new processes and new materials, New technology, new structure, special safety measures must be formulated; measures to prevent accidents caused by natural disasters; fire and explosion prevention measures.
    Safety requirements
    edit
    1. Gantry cranes, tower cranes, etc. do a good job of base pad treatment. The hoisting equipment must be inspected and qualified before use.
    2. Steel pipe scaffolding must be set up properly, and a safe construction technical plan must be prepared.
    3. It is strictly forbidden to use outdated construction machinery, equipment, and technology, otherwise, the top penalty for violation of safety production laws and regulations is required.
    4. Safety protection facilities must be done in accordance with technical standards.
    6. Establish a sound production safety responsibility system.
    7. Do a good job of safety management and internal data management, and do a good job of safety evaluation.
    8. Strict implementation of national mandatory standards.
    9. The security management personnel shall conduct in-depth safety inspections on-site on a regular basis, discover hidden dangers and rectify them in time, and eliminate hidden dangers in the bud. To achieve "three irons", iron discipline, iron wrists, iron heart.
    Focusing on typical work, accident prevention, basic work, hidden danger investigation and rectification is the focus of safety work.
    10. It is strictly forbidden to leave construction holes at random, and some detentions are very dangerous and may cause the house to collapse.
    11. It is required to raise awareness, attach great importance to work safely and be responsible for yourself, to units, to people, and to society.
    If there is a serious and serious security accident, it is necessary to lose property economically, politically it may deprive you of political rights, and you will regret it psychologically.
    12. For safety work, we must persevere and work hard. It is a work with a starting point and no endpoint. We must always tighten this string. Working safely, the effects of grasping and not grasping, paying attention and not paying attention must be different. One or a few people can't do a good job in production safety. We need everyone to work together.
    13. Require everyone to seriously study laws and regulations and unit rules and regulations, and clarify their responsibilities, what to do, and what not to do.
    14. The construction site office should be located in the open space on the construction site, but not in the house under construction.
    15. Strengthen the management of fire safety channels, fire protection facilities, lightning protection and other safety facilities to prevent accidents.
    16. It is required to properly handle the relationship between safety production and economic benefits. Safety production is done well. First, the company's efficiency is better, and second, the company's credibility is better. Doing a good job in safety production is an inherent requirement of enterprise development. It is related to the image of the enterprise, the sustainable development of the enterprise, and whether the enterprise can create better economic benefits.
    Standardized management
    edit
    1. What is the standardization management of building construction
    Standardization is the the activity of establishing common use and reuse clauses for real or potential problems in order to obtain the best order within a certain range. The standardization of construction project management refers to the successful practices and experience of project management, and by making management copies within the same or similar management modules, the project management is transformed from extensive to institutionalized, standardized, and standardized.
    2. What is the significance of implementing standardized management of construction projects
    (1) Through standardized management, complex problems can be programmed, fuzzy problems can be concretized, decentralized problems can be integrated, successful methods can be repeated, and organic management of project management can be achieved at all stages of engineering construction, and overall project management level can be improved. Provide a guarantee for the good and fast implementation of large-scale construction tasks.
    (2) By summing up the successful experience and practices in project management, it is conducive to continuously enriching and innovating project management methods and enterprise management levels.
    (3) Through the replication and promotion of project management experience to the maximum extent, a resource sharing platform for project management can be established.
    (4) By formulating a relatively fixed and unified on-site management system, staffing standards, on-site management specifications, and process control requirements in each management module, management resources can be saved to a maximum extent and management costs can be reduced.
    (5) Through the implementation of uniform operating standards and construction techniques, common quality problems and dead corners in the construction process can be effectively avoided, which guarantees the construction of high-quality projects and safety projects.
    (6) Through advance planning and prevention and control of various constraints in project management. It can effectively reduce various risks and avoid repeating mistakes.
    (7) By establishing a standard job responsibility system and target assessment mechanism, it is convenient for employees to conduct a unified performance assessment.
    Insecurity
    edit
    man-made
    Personal unsafe factors and wrongdoings that can cause system failures or poor performance events.

    1. Personal insecurity

    Including personnel's psychological, physical, and ability factors that can not adapt to the requirements of work and jobs, affecting safety
    (1) Psychological insecurity factors include personality, temperament, and emotions that affect safety (such as impatience, laziness, carelessness, etc.)
    (2) There are roughly five aspects of physiological unsafe factors
    1) Factors in which vision, hearing and other sensory organs cannot meet job requirements
    2) Factors in which physical fitness cannot adapt to job requirements
    3) Factors in which age cannot meet job requirements
    4) There are diseases that are not suitable for the job requirements
    5) fatigue and drunkenness or feeling hazy
    (3) Unsafe factors in terms of ability include influencing factors such as knowledge skills, adaptability, and qualifications that cannot meet the requirements of the job and job

    2. Analysis of artificial unsafe factors

    Human unsafe behavior refers to human error that can cause an accident, it is a fault that artificially causes the system to fail or has a bad performance, and is a wrong behavior that violates design and operating procedures.
    (1) Types of unsafe behavior
    1) Operation errors, neglect of safety, neglect of warnings
    2) Cause the safety device to fail
    3) Use of unsafe equipment
    4) Hand operation instead of tool
    5) Improper storage of objects
    6) Venture into dangerous places
    7) Sitting in an unsafe position
    8) Work and stay under lifting objects
    9) Inspection, repair and maintenance while the machine is running
    10) Distracting behavior
    11) Incorrect use of personal protective equipment and appliances
    12) Unsafe Attire
    13) Mishandling of flammable and explosive dangerous goods
    (2) Main reasons for unsafe behavior
    1) System and organizational reasons
    2) Reasons for Responsibility in Thought
    3) Work reasons
    (3) Main reasons for unsafe behavior
    1) Insufficient work knowledge or inappropriate working methods
    2) Unskilled or inexperienced
    3) The speed of the operation is inappropriate
    4) Improper work without paying attention to warning signs
    physical
    Material conditions that can lead to an accident, including unsafe factors in facility equipment or the environment.
    1. Contents of unsafe conditions
    (1) Defects in the thing itself
    (2) Deficiencies in protection insurance
    (3) Defects in the method of placing objects
    (4) Defects in the working environment
    (5) External and natural insecurity
    (6) Unsafe state of things caused by working methods
    (7) Defects in protective equipment signals, signs and personal protective equipment.
    2. Types of unsafe conditions of things
    (1) Defects in protective devices
    (2) Defects in equipment and facilities
    (3) Defects in personal protective equipment
    (4) Defects in the production site environment
    Managed
    Defects in organizational management, which is also potentially unsafe factors of the accident, have the following aspects as indirect causes.
    1. Technical flaws
    2. Defects in education
    3.Physiological defects
    4. Psychological defects
    5. Defects in management
    6. Defects in school education and social and historical reasons
    Safety accountability
    edit
    We must adhere to the principle of "safety first, prevention first", establish a production safety management system and a production safety responsibility system in accordance with the law, and take measures to eliminate possible risk factors during construction and production when arranging and arranging production content.
    (I) Contents of safety production management and main tasks of safety management
    1. The main content of production safety management
    (1) Establish a sound and effective safety production management organization
    (2) Establishing a sound production safety responsibility system
    (3) Preparation of safety technical measures plan
    (4) Do a good job in safety training for job training
    (5) Perform various forms of security inspections
    (6) Investigation and treatment of casualties
    (7) Seriously implement safety technical measures for construction organization design or construction plan
    (8) Do a good job of construction site safety management, etc.
    2. The main tasks of production safety management
    Strengthen labor protection work, improve labor conditions, strengthen safe construction management, do a good job in production safety, and protect the personal safety and health of employees.
    (Two) responsibility system for production safety
    1. The most basic safety management system in construction products is the core of all safety rules and regulations. It is the main basis of the safety management system and an an important part of the corporate responsibility system.
    2. The purpose of establishing and implementing a safety production responsibility system is to unify safety production from organizational leadership by establishing and implementing a safety production responsibility system, and to fix the principle of "managing production must be safe" from the system, thereby strengthening The safety responsibilities of personnel at all levels make safety management "vertical to the end, horizontal to the side, the management of the pipeline, the management of the network, the responsibilities are clear, coordination and cooperation, and work together" to truly implement work safety.
    3. Formulating and implementing the principle of production safety responsibility is to implement the safety production policy of "safety first, prevention first" and follow the principle of "leaders at all levels must be responsible for managing safety while managing production". While planning, arranging, inspecting, and summarizing production, it is necessary to arrange, inspect, and summarize and evaluate safety.
    (3) Main contents of technical measures for construction safety

    1. General engineering safety technical measures.

    2. Special technical safety technical measures. For special projects with complex structures, high risks, many characteristics, and complicated construction, special safety measures should be prepared.
    3. Seasonal construction safety technical measures. Because of the production process of construction products is subject to the geographical and climatic conditions in which it is located, the unsafe factors brought by the weather in different seasons to construction production must be considered during the construction process, which may cause various unexpected accidents. Take corresponding measures in technology and management.

    Implement the requirements of safety technical measures

    1. Make a thorough explanation of safety technical measures. Before the start of the project, the production and technical personnel and compilers will provide the project overview, construction plan and safety technical measures to the relevant management personnel and employees participating in the construction.
    2. Approved safety technical measures have the role of technical regulations and the construction and the production process must be carefully implemented. When it is necessary to change the content of safety technical measures due to changes in conditions or inadequate consideration, the original preparation and approval personnel should complete the change procedures.
    3. Strengthen the inspection of the implementation of safety technical measures at the construction site.
    4. The implementation of various safety protection facilities and devices in safety technical measures shall be included in the construction task list, the responsibility shall be implemented to the team or individual, and an acceptance system shall be implemented.
    5. Establish and improve the economic-related reward and punishment system to ensure that safety technical measures are implemented in construction and production.
    References


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    Item Reviewed: Building Construction steps in civil engineering - Building construction Rating: 5 Reviewed By: Ahmad
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