February 2018

 1.6 Types of Contracts

1.6.1 Measured or Unit rate Contract

In this type of contract, the price is computed by multiplying quantities of work executed by the unit rate offered by the contractor in his tender. The rates are usually set out in the Bill of Quantities (BOQ).
Such contracts often used where there are significant changes in the quantities or working conditions. So, when there are certainly reasonable differences of the quantities accepted by all the parties, then the contract can be paid for by multiplying the actual measured quantities by the unit rates.
1.   Suitability: This type of contract is widely used in the execution of large projects financed by public bodies or governments. It also suits the works which can be split into separate items and the quantity of each item could be estimated with reasonable accuracy.
2.   The employer pays for the actual work executed.
3.   The contractor usually allows for a certain margin of variation, with a clear mechanism for valuation of such variations.
4.   The engineer/employer has the liberty to provide some drawings during the execution of the project, after award.

l. The employer cannot be absolutely sure of the total cost of the project until the whole work is completed. In case the quantities in the BOQ are inaccurate or roughly approximated, the value of the work may vary considerably. The contractor may try to offer an unbalanced tender on the basis of his anticipation of the uncertainty of quantities of certain items.
2.        Both the engineer and the contractor have to do considerable computations and book-keeping during the progress of work.
3.        Extra works or varied items of work are often a source of conflict. The contractor may press for higher rates than he would have tendered for in the beginning.

1.6.2 Lumpsum contract

 In a lumpsum contract, the contractor agrees to carry out the entire work as indicated in the drawings and described in the specifications, for a specified fixed lumpsum amount.
Sometimes, the contract makes provisions to adjust the “lump sum” allowing for extra work and limited variations.
  Normally, a bill of quantities is not usually included, and if included it does not form part of the "Contract Documents", but may be used just for guidance.
Instead, a schedule of rates may be of value to evaluate the cost of extras or omissions.
  l. From the employer's stand point, and if no extras are contemplated, the tender sum tells him the exact cost of the project. Sometimes the employer will be working within a tight margin of the budget.
2.         From the contractor's stand point, because the design will often be prepared by him, the contractor can gain through proper planning and efficient management to increase his margin of profit and/or to control timing.
3.         Both parties need less number of staff for book-keeping (عملية مسك الدفاتر أي تسجيل جميع المعاملات المحاسبية), accounting and measurement.
  l. In lumpsum contracts, there should be a complete set of plans and specifications, or what is called "Employer's Requirements" which should be sufficiently detailed.
2.        Variations in a lumpsum contract may trigger conflicts about whether or not a particular item of work falls within the agreed scope of work, and whether there has been a variation to such scope.
3.        This type of contract will not be suitable for works with scope and nature that cannot be predicted accurately in advance. The outcome will be unfair for the contractor to assume all risks and uncertainties, or for the employer to pay a higher cost.

1.6.3 Cost-plus contract

This type of contract differs from both the measured and the lumpsum contract in that the employer agrees to pay the contractor for the actual cost of the work plus an agreed percentage of this actual cost to cover overhead and profit.
The contractor agrees to execute the works based on the drawings and specifications and any other information that will be provided to him from time to time during the progress of the works.
The percentage to be paid should not be applied to the costs of salaries of the contractors staff, whether on-site or off-site.
1.  Early completion of the work - The work can be started even before the design and estimates are prepared. Decisions can be taken speedily, and flexibility allows adoption of alternates for construction to suit the Employer's Requirements. 
2.  The quality of the work can be assured. The contractor is induced to perform the work in the best interest of the employer.  
3.  No conflicts will be anticipated as to extras or omissions.
1.  The final cost to the employer cannot be foretold. 
2.  Both parties have to do a lot of accounting and book-keeping regarding labor; purchase of materials and plant and use of equipment.
3.  The contractor has no incentive to economize or finish the work speedily.
  In spite of some drawbacks in certain cases, this form of contract can be used suitably for:
a-        Emergency works that require speedy construction and where no time is available to prepare drawings for it.
b-       Construction of special or expensive projects, such as palaces, where the cost of the work is of no consequence but the materials and workmanship to be purchased are just to suit the choice and taste of the employer.   
An alternative to the cost-plus contract is the cost-plus-fixed-fee contract, where the contractor will be paid for the actual cost of construction plus a fixed amount of fees for his overhead and profit. The fee does not fluctuate with the actual cost of the project. This factor may overcome the possible drawback of the cost-plus contract.
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1.6.4 Construction Management Contract (C.M.)

In this type of contract, the employer engages a specialized construction manager (C.M.) to provide administrative service for him and manage the work on his behalf. The (C.M.) has full control on (Cost and Time), on the budget and programming, and is usually paid on a staff-reimbursement basis.
The (C.M.) assists in choosing the design consultant and the various contractors for a project divided into packages (structural, finishes, electro-mechanical, etc.).

The technical role is kept with the design-professional, but as to control, coordination, certification and dispute resolution, the (C.M.) normally possess the major role.
References :

New Jobs Announced by Punjab service commission in Punjab irrigation department total no of jobs is fifty on permanent and contract basses. below details about all these jobs and its advertisement you can see here

Company: Irrigation Department jobs in Punjab, Government of Punjab, Pakistan
Jobs Type: Permanent Basis
 Designation: Assistant Executive Engineer / Sub Divisional Officer / Assistant Design Engineer / Assistant Design Officer / Assistant Director Flood Monitoring / Assistant Director
Total No  of Posts: 50 Posts
Qualification :
B.Sc. Engineering or B.E. Civil or any equivalent qualification from university or institute recognized by Pakistan engineering council and
Registered as “Engineer” with Pakistan Engineering Council, except in a case where section 28b of the PEC act, 1976 (V of 1976) applies.
Age : Male 21 to 30+5 = 35 years
Female : 21 to 30 +8 = 38 years
Disabled = 21 to 30 +10 = 40 years
Gender: Male, Female & Shemale
Domicile: All Punjab Basis
Place of Posting: Anywhere in Punjab
Syllabus for these jobs:
One paper MCQ type is written of 100 marks and 90 minutes duration. Syllabus is as under:-
Design of Hydraulic structures, Barrages, Fall, Canal, head regulator/design of river training works spur Embankments, apron, pitch etc.
Design of roof slab/design and working of various types of outlets / draw off / capacity statement/discharge measurement of the canal.
Questions relating to general knowledge including Pakistan studies, current affairs, geography, basic mathematics, English, Urdu everyday science and basic computer studies.

How to apply for this job : 
these all jobs are placed bu Punjab public service commission .for this job applicant is required to submit “online application form” by the closing date of 20-Feb-2018 to 12:00 am-Midnight. Applicants should fill in the online application form carefully in the light of the guidelines and instructions mentioned in the advertisement for the said post and “Important instructions to candidates”
Note: negative marking s there
It is mandatory for applicants to deposit fee: Rs. 600 under head “C02101-organizations of State-test fee realized by the Punjab Public Service Commission”. In any branch of state bank of Pakistan or NBP or Government Treasury on or before the closing date
Apply Online 

Secretary: Mirza Naseer Inayat
Phone No 042-111-988-722
Email: PPSC@punjab.gov.ppk
Website :www.ppsc.gop.pk
these Civil Engineering Jobs in  Irrigation Department, Lahore, Pakistan is best opportunity for experienced & Fresh Civil Engineers in Pakistan. All Civil Engineering jobs in Punjab Irrigation Department, Lahore, Pakistan is collected from different Newspapers on every Sunday and shared for our viewers so that that can apply for the job and get the employment in Punjab Irrigation Department, Lahore, Pakistan as Civil Engineer. These Jobs are for the Irrigation Sector So you must have experience in Irrigation Projects and Hydropower Sector.

We have prepared a group on Facebook where you can get the alerts about Jobs in Punjab Irrigation Department, Lahore, Pakistan you know any job opportunity in Private Sector both permanent Jobs and Jobs on the contract basis you can contact us, you can inform us about the job.
If you are a fresh or experienced civil engineer living in Pakistan and seeking Civil Engineering Job in Highway Engineering than don’t post or share your CV here as we are not a part of the department and we are just sharing it so that you can get the opportunity to apply for this job.

New Jobs In LDA 2018
  1. Lahore Development Authority Jobs February 2018
  2.  LDA NTS Application Form Sub Engineers, DEO & Others
  3. Advertisement in Daily Jang Newspaper on Sunday 04-February-2018
  4. Graduate / Postgraduate / Bachelor's / Master's Degree
  5. M.A. / B.Com. / M.Sc. / M.Com. / B.A. / B.Sc.
  6. Diploma of Associate Engineering (DAE)
  7. B.Sc. / BE - Electrical / Mechanical / Civil Engineering
  8. Sub Engineer Jobs in Lahore Development Authority February 2018
  9. www.nts.org.pk LDA Application Form Download Online
  10. Maximum / Minimum - Age Limit / Relaxation
  11. Eligibility Criteria , Academic / Educational - Requirements
  12. Lahore Development Authority (LDA)
  13. Public Sector, Government of Punjab / Pakistan
  14. Disabled, Minorities / Non-Muslims - Quota
  15. F.A. / F.Sc. / ICS / I.Com. / Inter / Intermediate - Pass
  16. Key Punch Operator, KPO, Computer Operator / Assistant, DEO
  17. Data Entry Operator Jobs in Lahore Development Authority February 2018 Punjab Pakistan
  18. BCS / MCS / BIT / MIT / BSSE / BCS / BSIT / BSCE
  19. IT, Information Technology, CS, Computer Science
  20. Accounts Officer / Assistant, Accountant
  21. Ladies / Women / Female - Quota
  22. Draftsman, Draughtsman
  23. Assistant Director Jobs in LDA February 2018
About LDA
DA strives to be an accountable and people-friendly principal planning and development vehicle of the Lahore Metropolis, aiming at providing and continuously improving metropolis-vide development works, facilities and services of acceptable standards to all without let or favor. LDA attempts to turn Lahore into an "attainable city" with the combined support of people, the private sector and different level of the Government, where overwhelming majority enjoys convenient, healthful and satisfied living.
It further seeks to enable Lahore to position itself to meet the challenges of the future and to seize opportunities in an effective, efficient, equitable and sustainable manner, the special efforts on challenges triggered by rapidly growing population, ever-increasing demands, needs for institutional adjustments and forces of changes within and without.It is committed to helping make Lahore the most liveable megacity of the South Asian Region by 2010 and one of the thirty leading educational cultural, commercial, industrial and information technology centers of the world by 2020.

LDA mission is to establish a comprehensive system of metropolitan planning and development in order to improve the quality of life in the metropolitan area of Lahore.To establish an integrated metropolitan and regional development approach and a continuing process of planning and development, to ensure optimum utilization of resources, economic and effective utilization of land.To evolve policies and programs relating to the improvement of the environment of housing, industrial development, traffic, transportation, health, education, water supply, sewerage, drainage, solid waste disposal and matters connected therewith and incidental thereto.
The Lahore Development Authority was created under the LDA Act 1975 duly approved by Punjab Legislative Assembly. Previously it was Lahore Improvement Trust.
There are 3 wings in Lahore Development Authority

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